Opuntia macrorhiza ingår i släktet fikonkaktusar, och familjen kaktusväxter. Vol. ID - 57831. Opuntia macrorhiza is a small, prostrate prickly pear cactus, seldom reaching 40 cm in height though it may sprawl 1 m across. This latter species differs from the Eastern Prickly Pear by its thick tuberous root and the greater abundance of spines on its pads. Opuntia macrorhiza var. Little water. Benson — Symbol OPMAP Common Name twistspine pricklypear Botanical Family Cactaceae …   Scientific plant list, Opuntia — Opuntia …   Wikipédia en Français, Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas), Словари и энциклопедии на Академике, Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. Accessed: 08-Apr-12. Hardy to 0° F. Grows to 5'. Free shipping. Eastern Prickly Pear (Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Some call it O. humifusa , others O. macrorhiza ., and still others are unclear whether these are actually distinct and separate species. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. Heat tolerant. var. Opuntia macrorhiza. 1913. The species prefers dry, sandy or gravelly soils. Click here to review or comment on the identification. Every order consists of a 5"-7" cured, unrooted cactus pad. [3][4][5] The species is cultivated as an ornamental in other locations. Data retrieved on: 14 June 2020 Sunset: 8-10, 12-24; USDA: 7-10. OPUNTIA MACRORHIZA WHOLE E4ZAG4FW3P Other General Names 7: Identifiers 7: Related Substances 1: OPUNTIA MACRORHIZA WHOLE E4ZAG4FW3P Other Approval Year Unknown. Family: Cactaceae Zone: Varies - 3/4-9. While Eastern Prickly Pear develops 0-2 spines per areole, Big-rooted … Eastern Prickly Pear (Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Opuntia: nombre genérico que proviene del griego usado por Plinio el Viejo para una planta que creció alrededor de la ciudad de Opus en Grecia. It prefers … There are few flowers that can rival those of Opuntia humifusa. Opuntia macrorhiza is an evergreen Perennial growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.8 m (2ft 7in). In addition a gentle enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonol glycosides using commercial pectolytic enzymes … Bigroot Prickly Pear, Twist-spine Prickly Pear, Common Prickly Pear, Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae (Cactus Family) USDA Symbol: opma2 USDA Native Status: L48 (N) pottsii. montana is usually found in areas of conifer or oak woodland above 1800 metres, occasional in grasslands at lower elevations. Summer flowers are lemon yellow single and simple. Opuntia macrorhiza var. United States Department of Agriculture Plants Profile, Biota of North America Program, 2014 county distribution map, SEINet, Southwestern Biodiversity, Arizona chapter, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Opuntia_macrorhiza&oldid=907136535, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 July 2019, at 19:15. (2017): An integrated assessment of the vascular plant species of the Americas, Science. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well … Opuntia macrorhiza is an evergreen Perennial growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.8 m (2ft 7in). Sunset: 8-10, 12-24; USDA: 7-10. Varieties can grow 1'-6' tall and 3'-6' wide as they branch to form clumping mounds or robust shrubs. Présentation de Opuntia macrorhiza : noms scientifiques et vernaculaires, statut de protection (listes rouges, réglementations), statut biologique en France Métropolitaine, données historiques et … Brown. Källor a b; Externa länkar. Species and cultivars you need to learn for class: Opuntia sp. USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 °C (20 °F) USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 °C (25 °F) USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 °C (30 °F) USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 °C (35 °F) USDA Zone 11: above 4.5 °C (40 °F) Not Applicable. Journal Volume/Issue: 1997. v. 109 (3) Main Author: Barker, D.H. Other Authors: Adams, W.W. III. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. The 'macrorhiza' variety has only basically yellow flowers with red bases, and the 'pottsii' variety has the more reddish flowers. Unter anderem existiert sie in New Mexico und Utah und im Osten in Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama und Louisiana. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. pottsii (Salm-Dyck) L.D. 358. £15.74. Opuntia macrorhiza ssp. macrorhiza. The attractive orange or yellow flowers appear May to July, followed by red fruits in late summer. Identifying characteristics: Cactus with broad green pads.O. It is in leaf all year. Selten erreicht sie 30 cm in der Höhe und 60 cm bis 90 cm in der Breite. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Opuntia tomentosa is an evergreen Perennial growing to 4.5 m (14ft) by 4.5 m (14ft) at a medium rate. [1] Etimología. western prickly-pear Å¡altinisangl. Opuntia macrorhiza. The only other cactus with a similar size and appearance in Illinois is the less common Big-rooted Prickly Pear (Opuntia macrorhiza). Opuntia macrorhiza. Opuntia macrorhiza angl. Unter anderem existiert sie in New Mexico und Utah und im Osten in Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama und Louisiana. It is used in medicine, food, and cosmetics in the form of tea, jam, juice, … říÅ¡e Plantae - rostliny » oddělení Magnoliophyta - rostliny krytosemenné » třída Rosopsida - vyÅ¡Å¡í dvouděložné rostliny » řád Caryophyllales - hvozdíkotvaré » čeleď Cactaceae - kaktusovité » rod Opuntia - … 1850. of cacti. Opuntia (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) belongs to the cactus family (Cactaceae), which includes about 1500 species of cactuses (Fig. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is not frost tender. var. In addition a gentle enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonol glycosides using commercial pectolytic enzymes was applied. They have a luminous beauty that is made even more spectacular when one considers they emerge from a low-growing, spiny cactus. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. O. macrorhiza has a large geographic range, being found from New Mexico and Utah into Texas and north to Colorado as well as the Plains States and the Midwest. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Opuntia thumbnails at the Plants Gallery Britton, N.L., and A. Opuntia macrorhiza angl. Symbol Key - OPMAP. Opuntia macrorhiza storaÅ¡aknė opuncija statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Kaktusinių Å¡eimos augalas (Opuntia macrorhiza), paplitęs Å iaurės Amerikoje.atitikmenys: lot. lindheimeri) forming the pentaploid O. western prickly-pear Å¡altinis The prickly pears are considered an old group within the cactus family with about 150 species in Opuntia. Little to no water. [2] It is also reported from northern Mexico, in the states of Chihuahua, Sonora, Coahuila, Nuevo León, Durango, Tamaulipas, and San Luís Potosí. Symbol OPMA2 Common Name twistspine pricklypear Botanical Family Cactaceae Opuntia cespitosa is a prickly pear included in the broadly defined O. humifusa group (O. humifusa s.l.) pottsii | plant lust A wonderful little cactus from Santa Fe New Mexico to only 4 tall x 30 wide with green pads and very short spines. ID - 57819. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Opuntia macrorhiza is a common and widespread species of cactus with the common names plains prickly pear or twistspine pricklypear or Western pricklypear. Full sun. Prickly pears are also known as tuna (fruit), sabra, nopal (paddle, plural nopales) from the Nahuatl word nōpalli for the pads, or nostle, from the Nahuatl word nōchtli for the fruit; or paddle cactus. The varieties are santa-rita, gosseliniana, and chlorotica (Ferguson 1988).Santa-rita is the most handsome. Plant database entry for Quimilo (Opuntia quimilo) with 5 images and 23 data details. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. var. Feb 19, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by Frances Dugas. 2: 572. macrorhiza … This family contains about 1,800 species all but possibly one or two native to the New World. Interpretation  Opuntia macrorhiza var. The genus is named for the Ancient Greek city of Opus, … It cannot grow in the shade. — Symbol OPMA2 Common Name twistspine pricklypear Botanical Family Cactaceae …   Scientific plant list, Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. Accessed: 08-Apr-12. O. macrorhiza verfügt über ein sehr grosses Verbreitungsgebiet. ×edwardsii V. E. Grant & K. A. Common name: prickly pear Other cultivars and species: Common species in the Eastern US are, O. compressa (syn for several species) and, O. macrorhiza. pottsii (Salm-Dyck) L.D. Heat tolerant. More study is needed to determine whether these should continue to be recognized as varieties, elevated to species status, or regarded as mere synonyms. 99264. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. Latin Name/Common Name– The term, Opuntia was used by Pliny (AD 23-79). It is impossible to … Species and cultivars you need to learn for class: Opuntia sp. Flowers are showy and bright yellow, sometimes with red markings near the base of the petals. Accessed: 08-Apr-12. ; Spines: … ×edwardsii V. E. Grant & K. A. O. macrorhiza verfügt über ein sehr grosses Verbreitungsgebiet. Opuntia: nombre genérico que proviene del griego usado por Plinio el Viejo para una planta que creció alrededor de la ciudad de Opus en Grecia. Hardy to 0° F. Grows to 5'. It cannot grow in the shade. Origin: Texas to Arizona, northern Mexico. It is one of the shorter species of the genus, rarely over 30 cm (1 foot) tall, spreading horizontally and forming large clumps. 99264. Interpretation  Opuntia macrorhiza var. Danger: Plant has spines or sharp edges; use extreme caution when handling. Lightboxes; Contact us. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Opuntia macrorhiza var. Current thinking is that this referred to the Greek town … Eastern prickly pear is in the Cactaceae (Cactus) family. Opuntia violacea v. santa rita (Purple prickly pear). Opuntia macrorhiza hybridizes with the hexaploid O. engelmannii (apparently var. By David Taylor. USDA Plant Characteristics. cladodes (2-3 years) were collected from the Cliff of Monastir (Tunisia) between June and July 2013. Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae. Symbol OPMA2 Common Name twistspine pricklypear Botanical Family Cactaceae Raf.) Identifying characteristics: Cactus with broad green pads.O. USDA Plant Characteristics. Origin: Texas to Arizona, northern Mexico. Opuntia macrorhiza in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Several varieties have proposed within the species. Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae. Opuntia macrorhiza (Engelm.) Common name: prickly pear Other cultivars and species: Common species in the Eastern US are, O. compressa (syn for several species) and, O. macrorhiza. Format: Article Language: English Subjects: plant physiology plant biochemistry View in NAL's … Discover (and save!) For more multimedia, look at Opuntia macrorhiza on Wikimedia Commons . Nopal raizudo (Opuntia macrorhiza) Localidad Young Municipio Estado ARIZONA País ESTADOS UNIDOS DE AMERICA Fecha 1937-05-23 Nombre del colector PEEBLES, R.H. Colección US United Opuntia is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae. By David Taylor. The 'macrorhiza' variety has only basically yellow flowers with red bases, and the 'pottsii' variety has the more reddish flowers. [5] Bildgalleri. This hybrid is a small subshrub, 20-40 cm, with a mixture of widely spaced, unequal glochids and closely spaced, shorter glochids. macrorhiza. montana) Photo by: Diego Armentano Origin and Habitat: New Mexico and Texas, USA Habitat and ecology: Opuntia pottsii var. Topseller Opuntia macrohitza "Apricot" /5201 ab 6,00 € * Opuntia macrohitza "DJF720 Kenton Oklahoma" /5206 6,00 € * Opuntia macrorhiza "Susanne" /5203 6,00 € * Filtern Sortierung: Filter schließen . Die runden bis länglichen Triebabschnitte sind graugrün bis blaugrün. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. The prickly pear that is native to Mexico and yields edible pads and fruits is the Indian fig Opuntia (Opuntia ficus-indica). Opuntia macrorhiza ssp. Grant. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. USDA Plant Characteristics. [1] Etimología. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. The prickly pears are considered an old group within the cactus family with about 150 species in Opuntia. O. cespitosa resembles O. humifusa and has long been overlooked by botanists because it was … Opuntia macrorhiza storaÅ¡aknė opuncija statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Kaktusinių Å¡eimos augalas (Opuntia macrorhiza), paplitęs Å iaurės Amerikoje.atitikmenys: lot. Opuntia macrorhiza wächst strauchig und bildet niedrige Polster, die eine Wuchshöhe von bis zu 13 Zentimetern und eine Breite von 2 Metern erreichen. Origin: Texas to Arizona, northern Mexico. C. Ulloa et al. Summer flowers are lemon yellow single and simple. Seeds collected from plant native to the sarita mountains near Tucson AZ. Where to Grow: Can be grown as an annual. Opuntia macrorhiza angl. For more multimedia, look at Opuntia macrorhiza on Wikimedia Commons . var. atitikmenys: lot. Opuntia macrorhiza, one of the most geographically widespread prickly pears in the US, forms large, low clumps many feet across, often partly covered by bushes or long grass.Pads are greenish blue, and medium sized, up to 6 inches long, bearing 1 to 6 spines per areole, mostly pointing downwards. – twistspine pricklypear Subordinate Taxa The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Opuntia macrorhiza . Opuntia macrorhiza Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. Opuntia macrorhiza ist eine kleine Opuntie. Opuntia violacea v. santa rita (Purple prickly pear). Opuntia chlorotica santa-rita Original Description What is Opuntia chlorotica santa-rita?. Benson, Экспорт словарей на сайты, Пометить текст и поделиться, Искать во всех словаряÑ. western prickly-pear Å¡altinis montana (Opuntia pottsii var. macrorhiza — Symbol OPMAM3 Common Name twistspine pricklypear Botanical Family Cactaceae …   Scientific plant list, Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. 2.4).It is a tropical or subtropical plant that grows in the areas of Mexico, Latin America, Africa, and Mediterranean countries. APPEARANCE. Brown. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Form: Opuntia have pancake-like stems called "pads" that are about ¾" thick and 4"-16" long, with colors ranging from green to magenta. Full sun. pottsii (Salm-Dyck) L.D. It is found throughout the Great Plains of the United States, from Texas to Minnesota, as well as in the desert and Rocky Mountain states from Arizona to Idaho, with sporadic populations in the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys. ID - 57819. Opuntia macrorhiza fue descrita por George Engelmann y publicado en Boston Journal of Natural History 6(2): 206. pottsii. western prickly pear Å¡altinis Valstybinės lietuvių kalbos komisijos… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas), Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza has more than one spine per areole. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. pottsii (Salm-Dyck) L.D. Seeds collected from plant native to the sarita mountains near Tucson AZ. Fruits are narrow, red, juicy and edible.[6]. Opuntia macrorhiza — Systematik Ordnung: Nelkenartige (Caryophyllales) Familie …   Deutsch Wikipedia, Opuntia macrorhiza —   Opuntia macrorhiza …   Wikipedia Español, Opuntia macrorhiza — storaÅ¡aknė opuncija statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Kaktusinių Å¡eimos augalas (Opuntia macrorhiza), paplitęs Å iaurės Amerikoje. Opuntia macrorhiza is a common and widespread species of cactus with the common names plains prickly pear or twistspine pricklypear or Western pricklypear.It is found throughout the Great Plains of the United States, from Texas to Minnesota, as well as in the desert and Rocky Mountain states from Arizona to Idaho, with sporadic populations in the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys. lindheimeri) forming the pentaploid O. macrorhiza, Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. Opuntia macrorhiza, a prickly pear cactus, is a clump-forming, semi-prostrate, Missouri native cactus which typically grows 6-14" tall.It occurs over a large geographic range, from Idaho to Wisconsin south to Louisiana and Arizona, but is rare in Missouri where it occurs in certain rocky glades and ledges and rocky open ground in only three counties in the State. While every effort has been made to provide the most reliable and up-to-date information available, ultimate legal … Sunset: 8-10, 12-24; USDA: 7-10. Benson Show All Show Tabs twistspine pricklypear Full sun. Beschreibung. macrorhiza (twistspine pricklypear) from the USDA PLANTS database It is in leaf all year. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. This hybrid is a small subshrub, 20-40 cm, with a mixture of widely spaced, unequal glochids and closely spaced, shorter glochids. Opuntia macrorhiza hybridizes with the hexaploid O. engelmannii (apparently var. pottsii | plant lust A wonderful little cactus from Santa Fe New Mexico to only 4 tall x 30 wide with green pads and very short spines. The only other cactus with a similar size and appearance in Illinois is the less common Big-rooted Prickly Pear (Opuntia macrorhiza). Raf.) Grant. Journal Title: Oecologia. Interpretation  Opuntia macrorhiza. OPUNTIA MACRORHIZA WHOLE E4ZAG4FW3P Other General Names 7: Identifiers 7: Related Substances 1: OPUNTIA MACRORHIZA WHOLE E4ZAG4FW3P Other Approval Year Unknown. your own Pins on Pinterest The xanthophyll cycle and energy dissipation in differently oriented faces of the cactus Opuntia macrorhiza. Opuntia macrorhiza fue descrita por George Engelmann y publicado en Boston Journal of Natural History 6(2): 206. Little to no water. var. Accessed: 08-Apr-12. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Prickly pears are also known as tuna (fruit), sabra, nopal (paddle, plural nopales) from the Nahuatl word nōpalli for the pads, or nostle, from the Nahuatl word nōchtli for the fruit; or paddle cactus. are adapted to survive low-severity fire by sprouting from the caudex and by layering from pads that were buried or protected in the … Opuntia chlorotica santa-rita is one of three varieties of the prickly pear cactus in the Opuntia chlorotica complex. … macrorhiza — ID 57820 Symbol Key OPMAM3 Common Name twistspine pricklypear Family Cactaceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Native to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution AR, AZ, CO, IA, ID, IL, KS, LA, MN, MO, MT, NE, NM, OH, OK, SD, TX …   USDA Plant Characteristics, Opuntia macrorhiza var. Noteworthy Characteristics. pottsii (Salm-Dyck) L.D. pottsii — ID 57831 Symbol Key OPMAP Common Name twistspine pricklypear Family Cactaceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Native to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution AZ, NM, TX Growth Habit Shrub Durati …   USDA Plant Characteristics, Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9 and is not frost tender. 1850. O. cespitosa resembles O. humifusa and has long been overlooked by botanists because it was considered synonymous with O. humifusa. USDA Plant Characteristics. This latter species differs from the Eastern Prickly Pear by its thick tuberous root and the greater abundance of spines on its pads. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. Identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in pulps and peels of Opuntia ficus-indica from different origins (Egypt, Sicily and South Africa) and Opuntia macrorhiza fruits were done using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. 3 vols. Hardy to 0° F. Grows to 5'. Using this photo The thumbnail photo (128x192 pixels) on this page may be freely used for personal or academic purposes without prior permission under the Fair Use provisions of US copyright … of cacti. and Opuntia microdasys (Lhem.) FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS; POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY; FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS: Fire adaptations: Fire information specific to this species is lacking.Opuntia spp. Data Source and References for Opuntia macrorhiza var. There are 2 species of prickly pear cactus native to Minnesota, one of which is Brittle Prickly Pear (Opuntia fragilis), though there is confusion and debate over the name of the second species. 1614-1617 [as Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. The photographer's identification Opuntia macrorhiza has not been reviewed. The pads on the 'macrorhiza' variety are larger up to 4 inches in length, while the pads of the 'pottsii' variety only reach 2.5 inches in length. (Fico d'India con grossa radice) USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Bloom Color: Bright … It has the … Etymology: Opuntia: Greek name used by Pliny for a different plant which grew around the town of Opus in Greece Plants: prostrate/spreading/erect, perennial, spiny shrub forming mats up to 5' wide; stems joints very flat and difficult to detach, pads broadly oval Leaves: usually with several spines together Flowers: yellow, … Seeds collected from plant native to the sarita mountains near Tucson AZ. Identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in pulps and peels of Opuntia ficus-indica from different origins (Egypt, Sicily and South Africa) and Opuntia macrorhiza fruits were done using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. [5] [6] Inga underarter finns listade i Catalogue of Life. Family: Cactaceae Zone: Varies - 3/4-9. Interpretation  Opuntia macrorhiza. Die fleischigen, rübigen Wurzeln erreichen Durchmesser von bis zu 7,5 Zentimetern. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. 1913. Little to no water. Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. var. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. Opuntia macrorhiza in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Wikimedia Commons har media som rör Opuntia macrorhiza. western prickly-pear Å¡altinisangl. Heat tolerant. Selten erreicht sie 30 cm in der Höhe und 60 cm bis 90 cm in der Breite. var. Opuntia macrorhiza ist eine kleine Opuntie. Opuntia violacea v. santa rita (Purple prickly pear). Opuntia cespitosa is a prickly pear included in the broadly defined O. humifusa group (O. humifusa s.l.) The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. This family contains about 1,800 species all but possibly one or two native to the New World. The pads on the 'macrorhiza' variety are larger up to 4 inches in length, while the pads of the 'pottsii' variety only reach 2.5 inches in length. Eastern prickly pear is in the Cactaceae (Cactus) family. Opuntia tomentosa is an evergreen Perennial growing to 4.5 m (14ft) by 4.5 m (14ft) at a medium rate. , commonly called prickly pear by its thick tuberous root and the British Possessions to form clumping mounds or shrubs! Flowers are showy and bright yellow, sometimes with red bases, and cosmetics in broadly... With red markings near the base of the vascular plant species of cactus with a similar size and in! Group ( O. humifusa group ( O. humifusa, others O. macrorhiza., chlorotica! Edible pads and fruits is the less common Big-rooted prickly pear ( Opuntia macrorhiza WHOLE E4ZAG4FW3P Other Names! Species is cultivated as an annual, 12-24 ; USDA: 7-10 13 Zentimetern eine! And is provided as a general reference source for interested parties ( žodynas! Whether these are actually distinct and separate species usually found in areas of or. 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