You cannot stand against your enemies until you remove them. Be careful to obey all the law my servant Moses gave you God's command to Joshua to meditate on the "book of the law" day and night parallels the description of Josiah in 2 Kings 23:25 as a king uniquely concerned with the study of the law. This prevents the Israelites from exterminating them, but they are enslaved instead. Even Moses died short of the goal and was told to turn everything over to Joshua. (JU), 19 Then Joshua said to Achan, “My son, give glory(JV) to the Lord, the God of Israel, and honor him. [47] Zionism thus presented the 1948 war (the war which saw the creation of the State of Israel) as a "miraculous" clearing of the land based on Joshua, and the Bible as a mandate for the expulsion of the Palestinians. Book of Joshua, Joshua also spelled Josue, the sixth book of the Bible, which, along with Deuteronomy, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings, belongs to a tradition of Jewish history and law, called Deuteronomic, that was first committed to writing about 550 bce, during the Babylonian Exile.. They entered the city and captured it and quickly set it on fire.(LF). 23 Then the two men started back. 15 Now the Jordan(DW) is at flood stage(DX) all during harvest. 16 Three days after they made the treaty with the Gibeonites, the Israelites heard that they were neighbors, living near(NC) them. Then you will be prosperous and successful. 18 Whoever rebels against your word and does not obey(AS) it, whatever you may command them, will be put to death. 4 Then you will know which way to go, since you have never been this way before. (GL), 13 Now when Joshua was near Jericho, he looked up and saw a man(GM) standing in front of him with a drawn sword(GN) in his hand. Israel broke faith with God regarding the “devoted things” (Joshua 7:1). NIV Reverse Interlinear Bible: English to Hebrew and English to Greek. 12 Joshua had taken about five thousand men and set them in ambush between Bethel and Ai, to the west of the city. 10 We have heard how the Lord dried up(BK) the water of the Red Sea[a] for you when you came out of Egypt,(BL) and what you did to Sihon and Og,(BM) the two kings of the Amorites(BN) east of the Jordan,(BO) whom you completely destroyed. Be strong and very courageous. The Deuteronomist author may have used the then-recent 701 BCE campaign of the Assyrian king Sennacherib in the Kingdom of Judah as his model; the hanging of the captured kings is in accordance with Assyrian practice of the 8th century BCE.[8]. 19 All the silver and gold and the articles of bronze and iron(HK) are sacred to the Lord and must go into his treasury.”. An alliance of Amorite kingdoms headed by the Canaanite king of Jerusalem is defeated with Yahweh's miraculous help of stopping the Sun and the Moon, and hurling down large hailstones (Joshua 10:10–14). These stones are to be a memorial(EV) to the people of Israel forever.”, 8 So the Israelites did as Joshua commanded them. Both the foreigners living among them and the native-born(MB) were there. (AR) Only may the Lord your God be with you as he was with Moses. their allocated lands (Joshua 24:28). (HB)” 11 So he had the ark of the Lord carried around the city, circling it once. Joshua Installed as Leader 1 After the death of Moses the servant of the Lord , the Lord said to Joshua son of Nun, Moses’ aide: 2 “Moses my servant is dead. March around the city, with an armed guard going ahead of the ark(GZ) of the Lord.”. Subsequently, 48 cities with their surrounding lands were allocated to the Tribe of Levi (Joshua 21:1–41, cf. 19 On the tenth day of the first month the people went up from the Jordan and camped at Gilgal(FM) on the eastern border of Jericho. 2 Then the Lord said to Joshua, “See, I have delivered(GS) Jericho into your hands, along with its king and its fighting men. 1 When the news reached all the kings west of the Jordan, in the mountain regions and in the Shephelah, and all along the coast of the Great Sea as far as the Lebanon: Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, a 2 they gathered together to launch a common attack against Joshua and Israel. 14 “‘In the morning, present(JL) yourselves tribe by tribe. 17 Not a man remained in Ai or Bethel who did not go after Israel. (EJ), 4 When the whole nation had finished crossing the Jordan,(EK) the Lord said to Joshua, 2 “Choose twelve men(EL) from among the people, one from each tribe, 3 and tell them to take up twelve stones(EM) from the middle of the Jordan,(EN) from right where the priests are standing, and carry them over with you and put them down at the place where you stay tonight. And they are there to this day.(FA). [32][33], The earliest complete surviving copy of the Book of Joshua in Hebrew is in the Aleppo Codex (10th century CE). They are hidden in the ground inside my tent, with the silver underneath.”. 3 March around the city once with all the armed men. [26], Albright questioned the "tenacity" of etiologies, which were key to Noth's analysis of the campaigns in Joshua. 2 Now Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai,(IL) which is near Beth Aven(IM) to the east of Bethel,(IN) and told them, “Go up and spy out(IO) the region.” So the men went up and spied out Ai. Joshua 1:1-9 ESV After the death of Moses the servant of the LORD, the LORD said to Joshua the son of Nun, Moses’ assistant, “Moses my servant is dead. The covenant-renewal ceremony led by Joshua was the prerogative of the kings of Judah. (CN)”, 21 “Agreed,” she replied. Numbers 21), and the 31 kings on the west of the Jordan who were defeated under Joshua's leadership (Joshua 12:7–24). 5 At dusk, when it was time to close the city gate,(BC) they left. While it seems simple (the author is Moses or not), scholars don’t necessarily treat it as a yes or no question—they also have to consider that Moses may have written part of Genesis.For some, orthodoxy simply suggests that Moses wrote the whole Pentateuch, perhaps with the exception of postmosaica passages such as Genes… Transfer of leadership to Joshua (1:1–18), II. Josué 1:7 Fortifie-toi seulement et aie bon courage, en agissant fidèlement selon toute la loi que Moïse, mon serviteur, t'a prescrite; ne t'en détourne ni à droite ni … 7 And Joshua said, “Alas, Sovereign Lord, why(IX) did you ever bring this people across the Jordan to deliver us into the hands of the Amorites to destroy us? Chapter 22:19 even hints that the land across the Jordan is unclean and that the tribes who live there have secondary status. (DT)”, 14 So when the people broke camp to cross the Jordan, the priests carrying the ark of the covenant(DU) went ahead(DV) of them. 9 The armed guard marched ahead of the priests who blew the trumpets, and the rear guard(HA) followed the ark. Joshua 1:6-9, "Be strong and courageous, because you will lead these people to inherit the land I swore to their forefathers to give them. [1]:42 It tells of the campaigns of the Israelites in central, southern and northern Canaan, the destruction of their enemies, and the division of the land among the Twelve Tribes, framed by two set-piece speeches, the first by God commanding the conquest of the land, and, at the end, the second by Joshua warning of the need for faithful observance of the Law (torah) revealed to Moses. [4]:7–8 The potential disunity of Israel is a constant theme, the greatest threat of disunity coming from the tribes east of the Jordan. 2 You shall do to Ai and its king as you did to Jericho and its king, except that you may carry off their plunder(KN) and livestock for yourselves. 5 Now when all the Amorite kings west of the Jordan and all the Canaanite kings along the coast(FU) heard how the Lord had dried up the Jordan before the Israelites until they[f] had crossed over, their hearts melted in fear(FV) and they no longer had the courage to face the Israelites. "[23]:18–19 The divine call for massacre at Jericho and elsewhere can be explained in terms of cultural norms (Israel was not the only Iron Age state to practice herem) and theology (a measure to ensure Israel's purity as well as the fulfillment of God's promise),[6]:175 but Patrick D. Miller in his commentary on Deuteronomy remarks, "there is no real way to make such reports palatable to the hearts and minds of contemporary readers and believers. All this time the trumpets were sounding. (NS) And that is what they are to this day. 9 Joshua set up the twelve stones(EZ) that had been[d] in the middle of the Jordan at the spot where the priests who carried the ark of the covenant had stood. Tell them, ‘Consecrate yourselves(JK) in preparation for tomorrow; for this is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: There are devoted things among you, Israel. As I was with(M) Moses, so I will be with you; I will never leave you nor forsake(N) you. 20 But if you tell what we are doing, we will be released from the oath you made us swear. Copyright © 2019 by Zondervan. (HW) 25 But Joshua spared(HX) Rahab the prostitute,(HY) with her family and all who belonged to her, because she hid the men Joshua had sent as spies to Jericho(HZ)—and she lives among the Israelites to this day. 13 And these wineskins that we filled were new, but see how cracked they are. (IZ) What then will you do for your own great name?(JA)”. Watch our overview video on the book of Joshua, which breaks down the literary design of the book and its flow of thought. 15 Joshua and all Israel let themselves be driven back(KY) before them, and they fled toward the wilderness. 22 Then Joshua summoned the Gibeonites and said, “Why did you deceive us by saying, ‘We live a long way(NK) from you,’ while actually you live near(NL) us? 27 That day he made the Gibeonites(NQ) woodcutters and water carriers(NR) for the assembly, to provide for the needs of the altar of the Lord at the place the Lord would choose. "[42] In doing this he is carrying out herem as commanded by Yahweh in Deuteronomy 20:17: "You shall not leave alive anything that breathes". (NE) 18 But the Israelites did not attack them, because the leaders of the assembly had sworn an oath(NF) to them by the Lord, the God of Israel. 1 After the death of Moses the servant of the Lord,(A) the Lord said to Joshua(B) son of Nun, Moses’ aide: 2 “Moses my servant is dead. 24 They said to Joshua, “The Lord has surely given the whole land into our hands;(CS) all the people are melting in fear(CT) because of us.”, 3 Early in the morning Joshua and all the Israelites set out from Shittim(CU) and went to the Jordan,(CV) where they camped before crossing over. (LD) 19 As soon as he did this, the men in the ambush rose quickly(LE) from their position and rushed forward. He asserts that the Bible was used to make the treatment of Palestinians more palatable morally. They did this for six days. [22]:3–4 Yahweh's war campaign in Canaan validates Israel's entitlement to the land[39]:158–159 and provides a paradigm of how Israel was to live there: twelve tribes, with a designated leader, united by covenant in warfare and in worship of Yahweh alone at a single sanctuary, all in obedience to the commands of Moses as found in the Book of Deuteronomy. 4 From the wilderness and this Lebanon, even as far as the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and as far as t… [30], The Book of Joshua holds little historical value. Josh 9:27 And that day Joshua made them woodcutters and water carriers for the congregation and for the altar of the LORD, in the place which He would choose, even to this day. At this the hearts of the people melted in fear(IR) and became like water. When it crossed the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off. Joshua's two final addresses challenge the Israel of the future (the readers of the story) to obey the most important command of all, to worship Yahweh and no other gods. (KL) For I have delivered(KM) into your hands the king of Ai, his people, his city and his land. The two figures had identical territorial goals; Josiah died in 609 BCE while attempting to annex the former Israel to his own kingdom of Judah. Hazor itself is then captured and destroyed. 9 Then the Lord said to Joshua, “Today I have rolled away the reproach of Egypt from you.” So the place has been called Gilgal[h](GF) to this day. 18 Then the Lord said to Joshua, “Hold out toward Ai the javelin(LB) that is in your hand,(LC) for into your hand I will deliver the city.” So Joshua held out toward the city the javelin that was in his hand. 23 They took the things from the tent, brought them to Joshua and all the Israelites and spread them out before the Lord. The king of Jericho, having heard of possible Israelite spies, demands that Rahab reveal the men. He pointed to two sets of archaeological findings that "seem to suggest that the biblical account is in general correct regarding the nature of the late thirteenth and twelfth-eleventh centuries in the country" (i.e., "a period of tremendous violence"). The Transjordanian tribes are dismissed, affirming their loyalty to Yahweh. The wording of Joshua 18:1–4 suggests that the tribes of Reuben, Gad, Judah, Ephraim and Manasseh received their land allocation some time before the "remaining seven tribes", and a 21-member expedition set out to survey the remainder of the land with a view to organising the allocation to the tribes of Simeon, Benjamin, Asher, Naphtali, Zebulun, Issachar and Dan. [21]:71–72 Given its lack of historicity, Carolyn Pressler in her commentary for the Westminster Bible Companion series suggests that readers of Joshua should give priority to its theological message ("what passages teach about God") and be aware of what these would have meant to audiences in the 7th and 6th centuries BCE. [24][25] Alt and Noth posited a peaceful movement of the Israelites into various areas of Canaan, contra the Biblical account. (KD) 26 Over Achan they heaped(KE) up a large pile of rocks, which remains to this day. The Book of Joshua is an anonymous work. All the bread of their food supply was dry and moldy. (JE) 12 That is why the Israelites cannot stand against their enemies;(JF) they turn their backs(JG) and run(JH) because they have been made liable to destruction. 4 Have seven priests carry trumpets of rams’ horns(GT) in front of the ark. 21 He said to the Israelites, “In the future when your descendants ask their parents, ‘What do these stones mean?’(FO) 22 tell them, ‘Israel crossed the Jordan on dry ground.’(FP) 23 For the Lord your God dried up the Jordan before you until you had crossed over. 22 Joshua said to the two men(HQ) who had spied out(HR) the land, “Go into the prostitute’s house and bring her out and all who belong to her, in accordance with your oath to her. But now see how dry and moldy it is. 7 “Be strong and very courageous. (HC) 16 The seventh time around, when the priests sounded the trumpet blast, Joshua commanded the army, “Shout! Joshua's own immediate obedience is seen in his speeches to the Israelite commanders and to the Transjordanian tribes, and the Transjordanians' affirmation of Joshua's leadership echoes Yahweh's assurances of victory. Joshua thus illustrates the central Deuteronomistic message, that obedience leads to success and disobedience to ruin. 17 The clans of Judah came forward, and the Zerahites were chosen. 30 Then Joshua built on Mount Ebal(LV) an altar(LW) to the Lord, the God of Israel, 31 as Moses the servant of the Lord had commanded the Israelites. But they did not drive out the Canaanites who lived in Gezer, so the Canaanites live in the midst of Ephraim to this day, and they became forced laborers. (MY) 11 And our elders and all those living in our country said to us, ‘Take provisions for your journey; go and meet them and say to them, “We are your servants; make a treaty with us.”’ 12 This bread of ours was warm when we packed it at home on the day we left to come to you. The book was probably revised and completed after the fall of Jerusalem to the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 586 BCE, and possibly after the return from the Babylonian exile in 538 BCE. [34][35], The Septuagint (Greek translation) is found in manuscripts such as Washington Manuscript I (5th century CE). As for those who are in the house with you, their blood will be on our head(CM) if a hand is laid on them. 18 And the priests came up out of the river carrying the ark of the covenant of the Lord. (LN) 27 But Israel did carry off for themselves the livestock and plunder of this city, as the Lord had instructed Joshua.(LO). They chased the Israelites from the city gate as far as the stone quarries and struck them down on the slopes. A reduced version of the Septuagint text is found in the illustrated Joshua Roll. (EO)”, 4 So Joshua called together the twelve men(EP) he had appointed from the Israelites, one from each tribe, 5 and said to them, “Go over before the ark of the Lord your God into the middle of the Jordan. (NO) Do to us whatever seems good and right(NP) to you.”. The people chose to serve the Lord, a decision which Joshua recorded in the Book of the Law of God. 28 So Joshua burned(LP) Ai[s](LQ) and made it a permanent heap of ruins,(LR) a desolate place to this day. Then you will be prosperous and successful. Numbers 32:1–42), and then describes how Joshua divided the newly conquered land of Canaan into parcels, and assigned them to the tribes by lot. No one knows the author of the others you mentioned but I suggest a levitic priest wrote the books or perhaps David could have. This is what I have done: 21 When I saw in the plunder(JX) a beautiful robe from Babylonia,[n] two hundred shekels[o] of silver and a bar of gold weighing fifty shekels,[p] I coveted(JY) them and took them. 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