CANDU/PHWRs generally use natural uranium (0.7% … 483 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 486 /H [ 1645 467 ] /L 222553 /E 84010 /N 10 /T 212774 >> endobj xref 483 40 0000000016 00000 n The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR™) is a Generation III advanced fuel-efficient 740 MWe-class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor developed by Candu Energy, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and China National Nuclear Corporation. Finally a CANMOX fuel is proposed with EC6 for disposal of the UK’s plutonium stock. BREST-300 has 17.6 tonnes of fuel, BREST-1200 about 60 tonnes. A high-energy proton beam hitting a heavy metal target produces neutrons by spallation. However, all transuranic elements are removed together in the electrometallurgical reprocessing so that fresh fuel has minor actinides with the plutonium. A contrast between the 1188 MWe Westinghouse reactor at Sizewell B in the UK and the modern Westinghouse AP1000 of similar power illustrates the evolution from 1970-80 types. Core outlet temperature is 329°C. Two examples built by Hitachi and two by Toshiba have been in commercial operation in Japan (1315 MWe net), with another two under construction there and two in Taiwan. The ABWR has also been certified as meeting European utility requirements for advanced reactors and is undergoing the generic design assessment process in the UK (see below). Hitachi has also been closely involved, with its RBWR concept which has a major aim of burning actinides. The ESBWR is more innovative, with lower building costs due to modular construction, lower operating costs, 24-month refuelling cycle and a 60-year operating lifetime. Today's PRISM is a GE Hitachi design for compact modular pool-type reactors with passive cooling for decay heat removal. The first units are likely to be built at Sinop in Turkey. Versatility of fuel is a claimed feature of the EC6 and its derivatives. It has more fuel channels (each of which can be regarded as a module of about 2.5 MWe). Areva NP is working with EdF on a ‘new model’ EPR, the EPR NM or EPR2, “offering the same characteristics” as the EPR but with simplified construction and significant cost reduction – about 30%. March 2012: Atmea1 reactor. 2004, Fuelling Innovation, IAEA Bulletin 46/1 The first units are planned for Kursk II and Smolensk II in Russia. It is designed to withstand seismic ground acceleration of 600 Gal without safety impairment. Here is a discussion of current and advanced CANDU fuel strategies. Another departure is that most will be designed for load-following. Once it is fully operational, each AHWR fuel assembly will have the fuel pins arranged in three concentric rings: Inner: 12 pins Th-U-233 with 3.0% U-233. They have four coolant loops, 163 fuel assemblies, and are rated 3000 MWt. Plant life is envisaged as 40 years with 85% load factor. Power is adjusted by changing the pressure in the system. 11.7) is a zero-energy critical facility, which has been used for the measurement of reactor physics parameters for a variety of CANDU advanced fuel cycles, including LEU, MOX and thorium. 0000048098 00000 n That for Hanhikivi is 1250 MWe gross, due to cold water. The application was supported by European utilities, and was granted in 2017. It will have enhanced safety, giving 1500 MWe gross from 4250 MWt. This is part of a federal Rosatom program, the Proryv (Breakthrough) Project for large fast neutron reactors. Fuel stays in the reactor about six years, with one-third removed every two years. 0000001506 00000 n It is the ninth evolution of the original BWR design licensed in 1957, and was developed from a predecessor design, the SBWR at 670 MWe. Early in 2012 Areva and EdF agreed in principle with China Guangdong Nuclear Power group (CGN) to develop a mid-size PWR on the basis of CGNPC’s CPR-1000, with third-generation safety features. The void reactivity is negative, as in a conventional LWR. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a US-led grouping set up in 2001 which has identified six reactor concepts for further investigation with a view to commercial deployment by 2030. In June 2012 Rosatom said it would apply for design certification in UK through Rusatom Overseas, with the VVER-TOI version. The Westinghouse AP1000 is a two-loop PWR which has evolved from the smaller AP600, one of the first new reactor designs certified by the US NRC. It is capable of running on a full MOX core if required. The 1100 MWe-class Westinghouse AP1000, scaled-up from the AP600, received final design certification from the NRC in December 2005 – the first Generation III+ type to do so. It is based on the ABWR architecture but has a shorter, flatter pancake-shaped core and a tight lattice to ensure sufficient fast neutron leakage and a negative void reactivity coefficient. In the light of operational experience of the first few reactors it would then apply for renewal of US design certification. It is 4000 MWt, 1520 MWe gross, with a design lifetime of 60 years and 250 Gal seismic rating. 0000005911 00000 n Late in 2014 a joint venture framework agreement between CNNC and Candu Energy was signed to build AFCR projects domestically and develop opportunities for them internationally. The UK’s Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) undertakes generic design assessment (GDA) of nuclear reactors. Other advanced HTR designs and concepts are in Appendix 4. At the end of 2016 the design was complete and large-scale engineering studies were validating innovative features of the design. Uranium enrichment level will be 19.75%, giving 4.21% average fissile content of the U-Th fuel. It has 257 fuel assemblies of a new design, 18- to 24-month fuel cycle, and passive decay heat removal. This 210 MWe Shidaowan demonstration plant is to pave the way for commercial 600 MWe reactor units using the twin reactor modules (3x210 MWe), also using the steam cycle. 25 MPa and 625ºC) to provide 40% thermal efficiency. It has been developed by Candu Energy with CNNC’s Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Corp, which plans to convert the two Qinshan CANDU-6 PHWR units to AFCRs. While designed for closed fuel cycle, this is not required. Twelve countries are involved so far: Canada, China, Finland, France, India (from 2012), Japan, Korea, Russia, South Africa, Sweden (from 2013), UK, USA, and others which have or are likely to have firm commitments to building new nuclear plants may be admitted – the UAE is an associate member. Overnight capital cost was said to be US$ 1200/kW (though the first contract was about $2100/kW) and serial construction time 54 months. Atomenergoproekt website. It represented the culmination of a 1300 man-year and $440 million design and testing program. In 2016 China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN) applied for GDA for the 1150 MWe Hualong One (HPR1000) reactor design, with a view to building it at Bradwell. These particles may be arranged: in blocks as hexagonal 'prisms' of graphite, or in billiard ball-sized pebbles of graphite encased in silicon carbide. This appears to have been overtaken by Hualong One. It is being built in China (four units under construction, with many more to follow) and in the USA (initially four units at two sites). Reliable fuel performance to extended bumup will be required to fully exploit the advanced fuel cycles that are feasible in CANDU reactors because of their high neutron economy [1]. Instrumentation and control systems will be from Areva-Siemens. Advanced CANDU Reactor ACR-700 • Builds on CANDU 6 design, project and operational experience • Retained traditional CANDU features: – Modular horizontal fuel channel – Fuel bundle design – Low temperature, low pressure heavy water moderator – On-power fueling – Passive shutdown systems in low pressure moderator First, the AP1000 footprint is very much smaller – about one-quarter the size, secondly the concrete and steel requirements are lower by a factor of five*, and thirdly it has modular construction. US design certification application was in January 2008 with certification expected in 2016, but halted. It is 1455 MWe gross in Korean conditions according to an IAEA status report, 1350-1400 MWe net (3983 – nominal 4000 MWt) with two-loop primary circuit. The planned APWR+ is 1750 MWe and has full-core MOX capability. Further operational and safety enhancements are also achieved by adoption of a fuel/cladding combination with high temperature capability based on those under development by Westinghouse in the Accident Tolerant Fuel program. Main Chinese export design, under construction at Fangchenggang and Fuqing, also Pakistan. This will take India's ambitious thorium program to stage 2, and set the scene for eventual full utilisation of the country's abundant thorium to fuel reactors. 0000073129 00000 n GEH has launched a web portal in support of its proposal. This is the fluoride volatility process, developed in 1980s, and is coupled with solvent extraction for plutonium to give the Fluorex process. The neutrons cause fission in the fuel, but unlike a conventional reactor, the fuel is subcritical, and fission ceases when the accelerator is turned off. In 2007 AECL applied for UK generic design assessment (pre-licensing approval) but then withdrew after the first stage. Recently, there has been considerable discussion in the media concerning the potential use of CANDU [R] … These reactors are in the 1300 megawatt range. Increasingly they involve international collaboration. 0000005428 00000 n The main rationale for RMWRs is extending the world's uranium resource and providing a bridge to widespread use of fast neutron reactors. Reactor type: • Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (ACFR™) • Enhanced CANDU Reactor® (EC6®) - A 700-MWe class generation III heavy water moderated and cooled reactor • EC6 CANMOX™ - An EC6 reactor that has been modified to use MOX-type fuel In September 2016 an agreement among SNC-Lavalin, CNNC and Shanghai Electric Group was to set up a joint venture in mid-2017 to develop, market and build the AFCR, with NUE fuel. This led to international collaboration and a joint regulatory statement on the EPR instrumentation and control among ONR, US NRC, France's ASN and Finland's STUK. Designs certified as complying with EUR include Westinghouse's AP1000, Gidropress's AES-92 and VVER-TOI, Areva's EPR, Mitsubishi’s EU-APWR and in 2017 KHNP's APR1400 (EU-APR). More than 50 other modules used in the reactors' construction weigh more than 100 tonnes, while 18 weigh in excess of 500 tonnes. In this, 90-92% of the uranium in the used fuel is volatalised as UF6, then purified for enrichment or storage. H�b```f``�e`c`8� Ȁ ��@Q�_`���K���W��pk0�a``|{����l$��4�/�=~DİK��t�GV���*�;5 Gy�~_���d/:id�+�8:Ke�k�y��(����Gy����,���hW4�=�@ 4�����I�T1E. Initially it is being run with one-fifth MOX fuel, but will have a full MOX core from about 2020. 0000009565 00000 n The thorium cycle remains of strategic interest in CANDU to ensure long-term resource availability, and would be of specific interest to those countries possessing large thorium reserves, but limited uranium resources. PRISM is suited to operation with dry cooling towers due to high thermal efficiency and small size. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) is involved with a consortium to develop a Japan Standard Fast Reactor (JSFR) concept, though with breeding ratio less than 1:1. Overnight capital costs were projected to be very competitive with older designs, and modular design is expected to reduce construction time eventually to 36 months. Unlike previous BWRs in Japan the external recirculation loop and internal jet pumps are replaced by coolant pumps mounted at the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel. * Sizewell B: 520,000 m3 concrete (438 m3/MWe), 65,000 t rebar (55 t/MWe);  Simplification was a major design objective of the AP1000, in overall safety systems, normal operating systems, the control room, construction techniques, and instrumentation and control systems provide cost savings with improved safety margins. It is nominally 335 MWe but can be less, e.g. The ESBWR (4500 MWt) will produce approximately 1600 MWe gross, and 1520 MWe net, depending on site conditions, and has a design operating lifetime of 60 years. The requirement of being able to use natural uranium in the CANDU reactor has resulted in a reactor and fuel design having excellent So-called Generation III (and III+) are the advanced reactors discussed in this paper, though the distinction from Generation II is arbitrary. Some consortium partners were interested in desalination, one in district heating. Technical and Economic Aspects of Load Following with Nuclear Power Plants, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (June 2011) The core is a similar size to that of the BN-600. The Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR) is being developed in China as a Generation III 700 MWe class reactor which essentially runs on the used fuel from four PWRs. 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