‘Pluralistic’ indicates the necessity to recognize the values of different perspectives and methods in landscape ecology dictated by its diverse origins and goals. At this level of ecological scale, the pattern of soil types on a landscape may have important ecological consequences. Studies in landscape ecology usually involve the extensive use of spatial information from field survey, aerial photography, and satellite remote sensing, as well as pattern indices, spatial statistics, and computer simulation modeling. The goal of landscape ecology is to understand the relationships between landscape pattern and ecological process; the role of humans and other forces of landscape change on these pattern-process relationships; and the principles required to make informed decisions in natural resource management. The time required for species and populations to adjust to the changed habitat conditions is known as the relaxation time. How can ecological information be translated from fine to broad scales and vice versa? Different kinds of landscapes as spatial mosaics of various patches on a range of scales. In China, the recycling of nutrients through dredging and hauling soil from water ways to fields was historically a primary nutrient cycling pathway, one that required considerable labor but was highly effective. Small islands that are far away from the mainland have the smallest number of species (S1), followed by large, far-away islands (S2), small, nearby islands (S3), and large, nearby islands have the largest number of species (S4). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 3. But over time the species numbers will decline as more extinctions take place than colonizations (e.g., via pelagic larvae). In landscapes in which habitat is highly fragmented, isolated populations in small patches face a number of problems ranging from loss of genetic diversity to edge effects. How does landscape pattern affect the spread of disturbances such as pest outbreaks, diseases, fires, and invasive species? The diversity of perspectives can often be related to the philosophical underpinnings of reductionism versus holism. The Andes has been an ideal location to develop highly complex cropping systems that utilize diverse altitude niches (Fig. 4.2). As a highly interdisciplinary enterprise, landscape ecology integrates biophysical and analytical approaches with humanistic and holistic perspectives across natural and social sciences. The other social and behavioral sciences have lagged behind geography in developing theories and models of human behavior and choices over space. In landscapes in which habitat is highly fragmented, isolated populations in small patches face a number of problems ranging from loss of genetic diversity to edge effects. Figure 2.17. Lookingbill, ... M. Suarez-Rubio, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2013. For example, currents that were previously slowed by epibenthic sponges and other protruding forms are able to reach the seabed unimpeded in the disturbed areas. Landscapes are spatial mosaics of interacting biophysical and socioeconomic components (Figure 1). Thus, a landscape ecology of riparia is underpinned by two key ideas: Spatial configuration influences the relationships developed by living beings between themselves and their environment, requiring one to understand how spatial organization of the environment shapes processes that drive the dynamics of populations, communities and ecosystems (Turner et al. Scott M. Pearson, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), 2013. 2). At this level of ecological scale, the pattern of soil types on a landscape may have important ecological consequences. Landscape ecology is concerned with the causes and consequences of spatial pattern in nature at multiple spatial scales. "the study of … Fig. Moss (1999, p. 138) gives a simple and practical approach: ‘To me, landscape ecology is simply about the study of landscapes and of the need to derive understanding about landscapes in order to enhance our abilities to manage them more effectively. Nevertheless, few would disagree that landscapes are compositionally diverse and spatially heterogeneous. Landscape ecology is the study of the structure, function, and changes in heterogeneous land areas composed of interacting organisms. No single paradigm exists that adequately defines how landscape models should be designed and tested. Mountainous terrain and alluvial valleys provide a wide range of niches for growing crops at different altitudes and in a range of environments, a common risk avoidance strategy in the Andes. How do patterns and processes on different scales relate to each other? 2.17). Hugh S. Robinson, Byron Weckworth, in Snow Leopards, 2016. A general definition of landscape ecology may be the science and art of studying and improving the relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes on a multitude of scales and organizational levels. Despite its limitations, the theory of island biogeography provides a conceptual framework for understanding the interactions between habitat patches and the species they are able to sustain. In Europe the challenge is often to mitigate the effects of development, but landscape ecology can be used more proactively to design for conservation and related benefits. Biodiversity increases with the size of islands, such that larger islands have greater biodiversity than smaller islands. Heterogeneity, scale, pattern–process relationships, hierarchy, disturbance, coupled ecological–social dynamics, and sustainability are among the key concepts in landscape ecology. Each forest or woodland can be viewed as a patch, within a matrix of other land use. 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