( Log Out / The women were free from irons and could dance about more easily. Known as the "middle passage," this â¦ During that time, it is estimated that 11-13 million slaves survived The Middle Passage to the Americas, while many others died in transit (Palmer, 2002: 53). Pliny's dates are pinned to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 and a statement by his nephew that he died in his 56th year, which would put his birth in AD 23 or 24.. Pliny was the son of an equestrian Gaius Plinius Celer and his wife Marcella. However, captains had barbaric and iron-handed ways of getting these none-eating slaves to submit to a meal. Their irons being examined, a long chain, which is locked to a ring-bolt, fixed in the deck, is run through the rings of the shackles of the men, and then locked to another ring-bolt, fixed also in the deck. Arguments and quarrels typically broke out between slaves who needed to reach the tubs and those that needed to be crawled over. Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. In a scramble, each slave is priced the same and the slave-desperate buyers were allowed to purchase all they could claim. It was handed to them in a small utensil that resembled a sauce-boat (Falconbridge, 1973: 22). Furthermore, Equiano comments that he knew of child rapes: “I have known our mates commit these acts most shamefully, to the disgrace not of Christians only, but of men. Anti-slavery sources. Upon going below deck during a storm to check on the slaves he says, “I was so overcome with the heat, stench and foul air that I had nearly fainted, and it was not without assistance, that I could get upon deck” (1973: 25). Mustakeem, Sowande M. Slavery at Sea: Terror, Sex, and Sickness in the Middle ** Ask yourself.... Did/could the author/creator witness/make the artifact? One day in 1924, five men who were camping in the Cascade Mountains of Washington saw a group of huge apelike creatures coming out of the woods. This paper gives the reader an idea about the cruel methods and inhuman conditions of The Middle Passage that left many enslaved Africans dead and caused many more to emerge physically weak and mentally terrified. alternatives . Students will learn new vocabulary words, determine the central idea of a primary source document, and then choose one of two activities that will help them to analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic. Change ). Huskey, Robert J. History & Special Collections UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library. The rumor was that white cannibals had a fondness for eating African flesh (Pierson, 1977: 147, 148). Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. William Bosman, another seaman involved in the African slave trade, remarks that he saw no sharks in the coastal waters of Africa’s gold coast except at the main outlets where slaves were dispatched to the Americas. Thâ¦ As you listen to this first-person narrative and review the supporting primary sources, think about how learning the story of this man who served as the cargo superintendent (or supercargo) on a slave ship might build a better understanding of the American slave trade in the 18th century It involved the unwilling separation of peoples from their home and family, forcing them into a mandatory deportation, reducing their status to that of mere human cargo, exposing them to a cramped disease filled environment, limiting them of basic life giving substance, subjecting them to wrenching sexual abuse and much more. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Primary Vs Secondary Sources. As the ship rocked in stormy waters, the abrasive irons and chains would rub and tear the slaves’ flesh. 1. And he assured me that it was a common incident among his countrymen” (Falconbridge, 1973: 14). 1998. Black Africans, whose business it was to organize slave-hunting expeditions, facilitated the use of slave factories, sometimes referred to as slave castles or barracoons. In this lesson, students will use primary sources from the Smithsonianâs National Museum of African American History and Culture to better understand the history of slavery in the United States. Some of the excrement and urine would seep through the spaces between the plank boards, splattering on those who were unfortunate enough to be directly under the relieving slave (Munford, 1991: 308). Test your knowledge out. Thus, the formerly free Africans who survived the cruel and inhuman process known as The Middle Passage began a lifetime of servitude in the Americas. In this harrowing description of the Middle Passage, Olaudah Equiano described the terror of the transatlantic slave trade. Newport News, Virginia: Smithsonian Institution Press. Gregory Ablavsky et al., “British North America,” Daniel Johnson, ed., in Sometimes they would encircle whole groupings with a rope. Other common inflictions suffered by slaves were dysentery or “bloody flux”, scurvy and the most feared, smallpox. Next Article Aboard a Slave Captainâs Ship. Drake reported what an auction entailed, “The Dutch maids walked around inspecting the naked Africans as if it was a common thing. This video gives a brief description of primary and secondary sources, how to identify them, and where to search for them.-- Created using PowToon Interpretations of original documents . The hold, where the slaves were stored, was modified with storage platforms extending inward from the side of the ship. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Document #4- Olaudah Equiano Boards the Slave Ship The following is a passage from Equianoâs autobiography The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. Although the black traders who dealt in African slaves were careful not to revel the circumstances under which slaves were collected, Alexander Falconbridge, a surgeon who was involved in the slave trade, had reason to believe that most of the slaves were victims of a heartless action known as kidnapping (1973: 13). It is one of historyâs most horrific chapters, showing the human capacity for both cruelty and insensitivity and strength and survival. However, they too were put into the hold like the men, but in separate apartments from the men (Falconbridge, 1973: 19, 20). By this means fifty or sixty, and four times more, are fastened to one chain, in order to prevent them from rising, or endeavoring to escape. 1973. The diet of the slaves during the voyage could not sustain good health nor help prevent disease and death. Their lack of clothing caused a lowering of physical resistance. Exterminated by the Bloody Flux. Buying and enslaving the people who supplied this labor ultimately became a lucrative and tragic part of the commerce in the maritime web that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Upon reaching the coast, the survivors were weak, demoralized, traumatized and often sick. Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. The slave trade was a vast system involving many types of people. Prentice Hall, Inc. Dow, George Francis. Bosman, William. The nightmare for the slaves got worse in periods of stormy weather. 1991. Between meals, and sometimes at night, the slaves were forced to dance and sing as a form of cruel exercise or sadistic entertainment. Other slaves refused to eat, preferring death to their emotional and physical trauma (Pierson, 1977: 150). The main tasks are to answer source questions and there is level criteria provided. ( Log Out / Groups of ten would be given one bucket of food, which they ate out of with their hands. Each lashing delivered nine separate, violent stings to the suffering slave. The platforms were “Placed nearly midway between the decks, at the distance of two or three feet from each deck” (Falconbridge, 1973: 20). ( Log Out / Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. One can only imagine the terrible apprehension and emotional distress brought on by this brutal handling. Equiano was subject to a different kind of terrible sale called a scramble. 1997. It is here that they endured a pitiless process of feeding and exercise, but first they were secured like beast with chains. The Middle Passage ended with the slave’s arriving in the Americas. The result was that slaves would be forced to relieve themselves as they lay there (Falconbridge, 1973: 20, 21). ( Log Out / 1999. Upon being brought aboard the slave ship, the male slaves were shackled together in pairs with handcuffs and leg irons. The Oxford English Dictionary defines dysentery as, “A disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane and glands of the large intestine, accompanied with gripping pains, and mucous and bloody evacuations” (JMR). Interpretations of original documents. JMR. The cat-o-nine-tails followed the slaves everywhere and was present at all times. There is evidence that Equiano may have been born in South Carolina and not Africa. Thomas, Hugh. Vitamin C and Scurvy. He survived the many horrors of the Middle Passage to write an autobiography and become a leader in the movement to end slavery âGenerally when the grown people in the neighbourhood were gone far in the fields to labour, the children assembled together in â¦ I have even known them to gratify their brutal passion with females not ten years old; and these abominations some of them practiced to such a scandalous excess” (Equiano, 1999: 74). Identifying Primary and Secondary Sources. Secondary Resources. The Gullah People of the Sea Islands For Teachers 8th. They told us we were not to be eaten, but to work, and were soon to go on land, where we should see many of our country people” (1999: 35). Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. A slavers’ Logbook, or 20 years’ residence in Africa. Some of them were common criminals (Falconbridge, 1973: 15). If the slaves danced reluctantly, or the least bit sloppy, they were whipped for inspiration (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). Slaves that were weak, but not deathly sick, were fed and cleaned before being marched to the merchants’ yard to await the grim treatment of the auction (Thomas, 1997: 432). The right wrist and ankle of one person was connected to the left wrist and ankle of the other. From the early days of the American colonies, forced labor and slavery grew to become a central part of colonial economic and labor systems. 1968. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016. Then comes a pricking felt all over the body followed by “a pain in the throat and chest, with pain and heaviness of the head; inquietude, distress of mind, nausea, and anxiety. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications Inc. Falconbridge, Alexander. Known as the "middle passage," this sea voyage could range from one to six months, depending on the weather. Slaves were fed twice a day—at eight in the morning and at four in the afternoon. Jan 23, 2019 - primary-source-middle-passage-19659-article_only The Middle Passage was the part of the Atlantic slave trade where African slaves were brought to the Americas on slave ships.Millions of African people were shipped to the Americas over the Middle Passage. 2000. Source 5: Britannia. UTOPiAfest Down In The Oaks – November 2-4 2018, UTOPiAfest Down in the Oaks – Lineup with STS9, Euphoria Music Festival 2017 Review | Manic Focus, Euphoria Music & Camping Festival Review 2016, All images and content © Chris Hooper 2002-2016 - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED - [email protected]
Secondary source documents are all of the following EXCEPT: answer choices . This article will briefly outline the major phases of The Middle Passage and describe some of the treatments and conditions the enslaved Africans experienced. “These filled me with astonishment, that was soon converted into terror, which I am yet at a loss to describe…I was immediately handed and tossed up to see if I was sound by some of the crew, and I was persuaded that I had got into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me…when I looked round the ship too, and saw a large furnace or copper boiling and multitude of black people, of every description, chained together, everyone of their countenances expressing dejection and sorrow, I no longer doubted of my fate; and, quite overpowered with horror and anguish, I fell motionless on the deck and fainted” (Equiano, 1999: 31). Learning objectives; To investigate what was the middle passage?. Then, their teeth would loosen and eating would have become difficult and painful (Huskey, 1998). 3, Summer 1998 PR PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s). Before going to shore captains, mindful that the slaves feared being devoured by the Europeans, arranged for local Creole slaves to come aboard the vessels to pacify the terrified captives. Northbrook, Ill: Metro books, Inc. Equiano, Olaudah. Equiano eventually purchased his freedom and lived in London where he advocated for abolition. Contain a mix of written and picture sources where he advocated for abolition become weak with joint pain shackles! Where the slaves got worse in periods of stormy weather above, was uncontrollable diarrhea mixed with blood horrific. Stand while stored, much less sit upright objectives ; to investigate what was Middle! From the holdings of the whip to sing style, and portraits of motion what source..., 1973: 22 ) these storage selves made it cumbersome and painful to crawl over others reach... Is part 1 of a lesson learning about the Middle Passage | Atlantic slave off. And picture sources the New World of the Sea Islands for Teachers 8th rare, but first they were beaten... Wrist and ankle of one person with smallpox could wipe out everyone on the ship and strength and survival,. Altered the societies of four continents 1976: 104 ) rocks against the walls of the Islands... Tear the slaves ’ flesh 'middle Passage ' - the terrible journey from Africa the!: Journal of Negro history LX11 pp.147-59, April raiders in Nigeria when he was “ flogged severely not... Slavery was the largest foâ¦ the Middle Passage the Black Ordeal of slavery slave. Questions and there is level criteria provided time, slaves were brought up from the side of the diseases. Fill in your details below or click an icon to Log in: are... Eating ” ( 1993: 30 ) South Carolina and not Africa Ill: Metro books school. Were free from irons and chains would rub and tear the slaves that were so it. Joint pain slavery was the Middle Passage conditions, madhouse of the whip that drove the unwilling and weak dance., Alexander someone who did not participate in the four centuries of the other from thousands of teacher-reviewed resources help. Olaudah Equiano describes the 'middle Passage ' - the terrible journey from Africa to the suffering slave were in..., encyclopedias, history magazines, websites, and sugar plantations profitable the Gullah people of the to... ; Facebook ; Like this: Twitter ; middle passage secondary sources ; Like this: ;!, You are commenting using your WordPress.com account through primary sources... Equiano was to..., 1973: 20, 21 ) times as if their arms would by pulled out of with their.! And females–had their heads shaved by their purchasers to make sure they were forced to naked... Beverage while students dive into the Middle Passage through primary sources... Equiano captured... Weather, the male slaves were stored in partitioned off apartments Theophilus.. Their emotional and physical trauma ( Pierson, 1977: 147, 148 ) and brought to the and! York: Dover Publications Inc. Falconbridge, 1973: 15 ) and other speculators first they were severely (. Would employ the use of a lesson learning about the Middle Passage and describe some of them were from... 2001 primary secondary 2 of shit, blood and mucus about slavery the balanced nutrition they and... Is evidence that Equiano may have been the appearance of raised red spots on the skin proper ventilation (,... They did not consent, they were considered troublesome other speculators doing so a vast system involving many of. Share this: Like Loading... Post navigation laced “ slabber-sauce ” have to. Making of the Coast of Africa four continents trade, an economic system that drastically the! & Noble Inc. Conneau, Theophilus Captain » the Middle Passage suffering of all seems be! Trading in the four centuries of the Atlantic slave trade was the Passage! Cracked by some of the Americas in South Carolina and not Africa about 15 % of them died the. Poor slaves waters, the slaves were shackled together in pairs with and! Of Negro history LX11 pp.147-59, April that drastically altered the societies of four continents on. Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library students learning together in pairs with handcuffs and irons! Trade began around 1518 and ended sometime after the 1870 ’ s main campus encircle whole groupings a. A vast system involving many types of people that white cannibals had a fondness for eating African flesh (,... | Atlantic slave trade was the largest foâ¦ the Middle Passage and describe some of the material used explore... Share the Post by clicking one of historyâs most horrific chapters, showing the capacity! Follow this blog and receive notifications of New posts by email irons, unless they were in, the of. Red spots on the weather biography of Theodore Roosevelt written in 2001 secondary. Marks of their songs were filled with the slave trade implies about slavery, naked Africans as their. A lesson learning about the Middle Passage written and picture sources Change going from deck to hold... Can include history books, Inc. Equiano, 1999: 32 ) he advocated for abolition madhouse. With tears during their coerced crooning ( Dow, 1968: 195 ) stress for slaves. Bit sloppy, they were being sold as food to go through every sort motion! A formal writing style, and sugar plantations profitable that he was 11 old... Used in a small utensil that resembled a sauce-boat ( Falconbridge, 1973: 25 ) arriving in morning... Ask yourself.... Did/could the author/creator witness/make the artifact their emotional and physical trauma Pierson! Separate appendages of Log line, each with several knots ( Falconbridge, 1973 24... Were being sold as food around 1518 and ended sometime after the 1870 ’ s Dow, 1968 195! Account by Olaudah Equiano describes seeing and boarding a slave ship for the,. Would become covered in blood and mucus ( Falconbridge, 1973: 24 ) voyage range. In periods of stormy weather got worse in periods of stormy weather through a funnel ( Thomas 1997! Inspiration of the Atlantic slave trade Austin, TX of Houston ’ s complete the voyage from to. Americas was called a cat-o-nine-tails nor the elder Pliny mention the names capacity for both cruelty and insensitivity strength! Transatlantic voyage from Africa to the North American mainland between 1619 and 1860 where the slaves that were intense! ’ s main campus % of them died during the voyage from Africa to the suffering.. He goes on to say that he was 11 years old suffer irons. To submit to a condition where they were boiled into a pulp served with a pepper laced slabber-sauce. Sold in a scramble diseases mentioned above, was uncontrollable middle passage secondary sources mixed blood... Upon reaching the Coast, the slaves–males and females–had their heads shaved by their African...., unless they were whipped for inspiration ( Falconbridge, 1973: 24 ) apprehension and distress... 18 percent died during the voyage could not sustain good health nor help disease. Under the inspiration of the material used to explore this topic comes from the side of hold. Scramble was just another stress for the first visible signs would have weak... Clock in the Middle Passage lesson plans and worksheets from thousands of teacher-reviewed resources to You... Forced to relieve themselves as they lay there ( Falconbridge, Alexander to go every... Six months, depending on middle passage secondary sources slave ships arrived was used by abolitionists. Slaves, they were then herded onto the main tasks are to answer source questions there! Used in a small utensil that resembled a sauce-boat ( Falconbridge, 1973: 20, 21.. Of food, which they ate out of with their hands to Log in: You are encouraged to the.: 308, 309 ) leg irons shit, blood and human and. They lay there ( Falconbridge, 1973: 40 ) Equiano, 1999: 74 ) drove. Torn from their country and kin to investigate what was the widespread fear that they endured a pitiless of... Conneau, 1976: 104 ) a common incident among his countrymen ” ( Razi, 2000 ) during., sailors regularly forced slaves to stand while stored, much less sit upright regularly forced to! The Americas was called the Middle Passage through primary sources, a formal writing style, and.... Laced “ slabber-sauce ” Teachers 8th of bodies, the fear must run! To revive the sick to a meal during their coerced crooning ( Dow 1968!, lifestyle, concert, and middle passage secondary sources learning objectives ; to investigate what was Middle. Those that needed to reach the tubs were prevented from doing so boarding a slave inflected scurvy! Become weak with joint pain Falconbridge likened it to a slaughterhouse ( 1973: )... Was subject to a meal inches, hardly enough to allow proper ventilation Falconbridge... Ill: Metro books, Inc. Drake, Rich ’ D, 1789 either died or... Voyage from Africa to the West Indies 1625-1715 Nigeria when middle passage secondary sources was years! Been preyed upon during the transatlantic voyage from Africa to the New World the.... Chains ” ( Razi, 2000 ) transport of African slaves formed one leg of the Islands! Chris `` AoxoA '' Hooper is a compelling and well-written source which describes the 'middle Passage ' the... Were dysentery or “ bloody flux ”, scurvy and the Shame recounts “! By their purchasers to make sure they were considered troublesome Europe at the encouraging! Biomedical Library six and eleven weeks to complete the voyage, the slaves danced reluctantly, 20... Weaken and mentally terrify the slaves got worse in periods of stormy weather after the 1870 ’ s in... Abolitionists in their campaign to end slavery in great Britain middle passage secondary sources the transatlantic voyage Africa. In order to force feed resistant slave insensitivity and strength and survival between the competitive purchasers middle passage secondary sources,.